Articles from October, 2010

Education technology leadership honored in this year’s “20 to Watch” list

From a school librarian who’s blog of book selections is read around the country to a kindergarten teacher turned top executive at a major digital education resources company who’s extolled the value of educational social networking along the way, this year’s “20 to Watch” list are movers and shakers in the education area who are as cutting edge as the technologies they utilize.

Check out these remarkable individuals and their impressive biographies.  They will be recognized at next week’s T+L Conference in Phoenix.

In the meantime, view Paul Andersen’s collection of instructional videos he posts on YouTube, called Bozeman Biology. No wonder he was also named the 2011 Montana Teacher of the Year.

Below is one of Anderson’s videos that has received 7,969 views. Clearly Anderson doesn’t have that many students, so it is great to know that so many other are watching!

Naomi Dillon|October 14th, 2010|Categories: Teachers, Conferences and Events, Educational Technology, Multimedia and Webinars, Student Achievement, NSBA Opinions and Analysis|Tags: , , , |

NSBA’s Technology Learning Network announces “20 to Watch”

From an elementary teacher who launched a district-wide student blogging campaign to a top executive at a major digital education resources conglomerate who led the field of educational social networking, the members of NSBA’s 2010 Technology Leadership Network (TLN) “20 to Watch” list embody educators who are as cutting edge as the technologies they embrace and incorporate systemwide.

“These individuals do not just believe in technology for technology’s sake. They are finding different, effective and exciting ways to engage students through the use of technology,” said Ann Flynn, NSBA’s director of education technology programs. “We recognize these innovative educators as role models who can inspire their colleagues to embrace tools that help make learning more relevant for their students and more transparent for parents and community members.”

The 2010 honorees will be recognized at NSBA’s T+L Conference, to be held Oct. 19-21 in Phoenix. Here is a list of this year’s winners and their individual achievements:

Paul Andersen, high school teacher, Bozeman Public Schools, Bozeman, Montana

Recently named the 2011 Montana Teacher of the Year, Paul Andersen is getting well-deserved recognition for not only his innovative use of technology (he has posted his lessons on YouTube for the past two years) but willingness to share his knowledge with students and teachers in his weekly “Tech Junkies” meetings.

Gretchen Breon, sixth-grade teacher, Spencerport Central School District, Spencerport, New York

Gretchen Breon builds a strong rapport with her students and their parents through the use of her classroom Wiki, which serves as a virtual “kitchen table” to discuss literary works, post writing samples and offer immediate feedback to classmates. Breon focuses her use of technology on concepts that promote creative thinking, incorporate problem-solving and are quick for children to comprehend.

Cheryl Capozzoli, educational consultant/ instructional technology specialist, Capital Area Intermediate Unit, Newport, Pennsylvania

In her role at a regional education center, Cheryl Capozzoli has helped countless teachers incorporate Web 2.0 technologies into the classroom. She developed a Wiki called Web 2.0 Guru to help educators stay abreast of current research and best practices for effective instructional technology integration and she has created Facebook Community pages for teachers, parents and students to stay connected and informed about school issues and initiatives.

Julie Carter, executive director of technology, Minnetonka School District, Minnetonka, Minnesota

During the past year, Julie Carter implemented a district-wide, single sign-on portal for students, staff and parents, allowing them to collaborate and share important information online with a single login and password. Students collaborate internationally via the Web, and have access to free online storage, e-mail and file sharing. Carter also launched guest wireless access at the high school campus allowing students to bring their own laptops, smart phones, iPods and other devices to school.

Audrey Cucci, math teacher, Frankfort-Schuyler Central School District, Frankfort, New York

Audrey Cucci’s diligence in employing technology into her instruction–she records her daily lessons and posts them on School Tube and her website–have benefitted many teachers across the state, who have borrowed her lessons or joined the math/science technology user group she created for the Central New York Region.

Steve Dembo, director of education social media strategy and online community, Discovery Education, Chicago, Illinois

A former kindergarten teacher, Steve Dembo was one of the first educators to use Twitter and employ podcasts in classrooms. He now pushes his colleagues to adopt emerging technologies from his post at Discovery Education, where his blog,, is frequently listed as one of the top educational blogs.

Camilla Gagliolo, instructional technology coordinator, Arlington Public Schools, Arlington Virginia

Camilla Gagliolo has promoted digital portfolio creation, multimedia integration and the use of emergent and handheld technologies in Arlington’s classrooms. Recently, she led efforts to create the Capital Region Society for Technology in Education, a group that brings together like-minded educators from across the D.C. region. A native of Sweden, Gagliolo is adept at connecting to educators and students worldwide.

Darren Gunderson, instructional technologist, Geary County USD 475, Junction City, Kansas

Darren Gunderson helps students and teachers integrate technology into real-world situations. One such project has students going to Kansas’ Konza Prairie to collect data on wildlife and plant life for researchers, who enter the information into a centralized database for everyone to access.

Buffy Hamilton, media specialist/teacher, Cherokee County School District, Canton, Georgia

Buffy Hamilton renamed her school library, The Unquiet Library, to emphasize an inquiry
and participatory approach to learning. But it was also named the 2010 Georgia High School Media Program of the Year for 2010 because of its active presence on social media sites, where Hamilton’s Unquiet Library blog is widely read across the country.

Debra Howe, superintendent, Rochester Community Schools, Rochester, Indiana

Debra Howe spearheaded the creation of the first New Tech High in rural Indiana. Not only are high school students learning in a 1:1 technology rich environment, but all K-12 classrooms have interactive white boards, SMART document cameras, laptop computers and digital cameras. Howe drives true technology integration into the instructional process through curriculum, professional development and purchasing decisions.

Ryan Hurley, English teacher, Warren County Schools, Warrenton, North Carolina

Ryan Hurley has turned his classroom into a paperless learning community using a wide variety of free online resources. His students use to discuss literature and share ideas and to access libraries full of free, public-access digital documents and literature.

Jeffrey McMahon, academic technology officer, Indianapolis Public Schools, Indianapolis, Indiana

Jeffrey McMahon is used to leading. He was instrumental in bringing a 1:1 laptop model to the 2,500-student district. He brought CISCO Academies to Indianapolis and is spearheading virtual learning opportunities for students.

Shelley Patterson, teacher, Alexander City Schools, Alexander City, Alabama

Shelley Patterson’s uses a digital camera, tablet PC, Mac, iPod, blogging, video streaming, interactive PowerPoint presentations, and computer games, just to name a few, to enhance her daily lessons. She also launched a “Podcasting Camp” for teachers at Stephens Elementary School, creating podcasts that are aligned with state and national standards, which teachers, students and parents can access.

Adina Popa, technology resource teacher/international ambassador, Loudoun County Public Schools, Ashburn, Virginia

Adina Popa has spearheaded videoconferencing and Web 2.0 initiatives in her school district; this year alone, Loudoun County Public Schools held more than 500 videoconferences and formed partnerships with schools on three continents. First-graders connected with Alaskan mushers preparing for the Iditarod, for example, while fifth-graders discussed the connections between music and math with professional musicians.

Jamie D. Ramos, information & technology services coordinator, Tippecanoe School Corporation, Lafayette, Indiana

Jamie Ramos put wireless tablet PCs into the hands of all 800 classroom teachers in the district and rolled out wireless access in all 20 buildings, enabling teachers to be on the network anywhere in their school. He also led efforts to give parents online access to grades, attendance and registration information, and helped implement two student technology centers which offer engineering, robotics, forensics and medical technology courses.

Stephanie Rick, third grade teacher, Avoca School District 37, Glenview, Illinois

Stephanie Rick has launched many technology-based initiatives, including “Blog Wild,” a district-wide student blogging campaign that has got elementary students wild about blogging their schoolwork. Rick also established an “e-pal” relationship with a class in England and is always looking for ways to connect her students to ideas from around the world.

Brad Sandt, director of technology, Park Hill School District, Kansas City, Missouri

As the district’s technology director Brad Sandt is always focused on the big picture and thanks to process changes he implemented, including clearer service agreements, self-service software deployments and a plan to upgrade and replace district technology, the district has seen a 44 percent drop in work orders during the school year in the past year alone.

Eric Sheninger, principal, New Milford School District, New Milford, New Jersey

Eric Sheninger has instituted a school-wide program at New Milford High School to employ social media, including Facebook, Twitter, Skype, Animoto, Wordle, Voicethread and Delicious. While other schools have put boundaries on Web 2.0, Sheninger has promoted cutting-edge technology to students and staff. He has been a keynote speaker at conferences on using Twitter and Google Apps in the classroom.

Terri Simpson, teacher, Calcasieu Parish Public Schools, Sulphur, Louisiana

Terri Simpson is a bonafide 21st century educator, leading efforts to incorporate GoogleDocs, iPods, Palm hand-helds, digital cameras, iPads, student-response systems and one-to-one computing at Maplewood Middle School, and has secured grants and other funding to help bring this technology to the school. Simpson also offers a monthly parent technology night to help parents improve their technology skills.

Ellen Stubblefield, K-first grade teacher, Hoover City Schools, Hoover, Alabama

Ellen Stubblefield uses a Wiki as her classroom Web page, where she posts all kinds of examples of student work, from pictures to podcasts. Her kindergarten and first-grade students micro-blog via Twitter, and use Skype to connect to outside experts.

Naomi Dillon|October 14th, 2010|Categories: Teachers, Educational Technology, School Board News|

Schools’ jurisdiction continues to expand; well beyond the point it should

1645-12516188516d5IOkay, call me an old fuddy dud.

I recall the grand old days when the nation’s high court ruled that students enjoyed a constitutional right to protest the Vietnam War. I remember when school principals thought twice about censoring student newspapers.

I was allowed to wear pretty much what I wanted . . . and to wear my hair as long as I wanted.

I wasn’t a hippy, a revolutionary, or even one of those dreaded longhaired liberals. I simply was taught to believe that the government had very limited rights to curtail my behavior.

I’m not sure what kids are being taught today. According to an article in USA Today, “student athletes and those involved in extracurricular activities in states including New Jersey, South Carolina, and Indiana are signing codes of conduct that hold them accountable for their behavior regardless of whether school is in session.”

In other words, schools are telling kids what they can and cannot do—and what they can say or not say—anywhere and any time. Nights. Weekends. Summers.

I’ve got a problem with that.

Now, I respect the intent of school officials to protect students. There is a solid rationale, for example, to have policies dealing with student athletes using illicit drugs outside of school. Such abuse creates a health risk for those involved in strenuous physical activity on school grounds.

Naomi Dillon|October 14th, 2010|Categories: Governance, Policy Formation, American School Board Journal|

Education headlines: Rhee’s successor vows to continue reforms

After much speculation, D.C. Schools Chancellor Michelle Rhee has announced her resignation today. The Washington Post notes that presumptive mayor-elect Vincent C. Gray has selected Rhee’s second-in-command as the interim chancellor of D.C. public schools and vowed that reforms launched under Rhee would continue when he takes office in January… The Los Angeles school board has affirmed a plan to cut custodial managers from elementary schools, leading Superintendent Ramon Cortines to tell the board that he will retire earlier than planned, a the end of this year, the Los Angeles Times reports… And the overall impact of Geoffrey Canada’s Harlem Children’s Zone, the ambitious plan to provide social and health services in addition to charter schools to impoverished Harlem neighborhoods, is unclear, as the project struggles with the same difficulties faced by other urban schools, according to the New York Times.

Joetta Sack-Min|October 13th, 2010|Categories: Charter Schools, Announcements, School Board News|

NSBA, state associations call for clarity on Education Jobs Fund

(Republished with permission of the Associated School Boards of South Dakota)

The U.S. Department of Education should provide more clarity on how states can use emergency education aid authorized by the Education Jobs and Medicaid Assistance Act and initiate a thorough review of how states have implemented the law, ASBSD officials said.

In late August, state officials announced that South Dakota will use $26.3 million in emergency federal education aid to supplant state funds that were authorized for K-12 education in the current budget year. According to the state’s plan, dollars freed-up by the one-time federal money will be used to fund the state’s obligations to K-12 schools next year.

Several states have adopted approaches similar to South Dakota’s plan, prompting NSBA to write a letter asking U.S.  Secretary of Education Arne Duncan to address widespread concerns about whether state governments are honoring the intent of the federal legislation.

In the letter, dated Oct. 7, NSBA asks the education department to issue additional guidance to settle whether states acted appropriately by using federal funding to replace state dollars already appropriated for K-12 education. NSBA also asks about the “possibility of conducting interim reviews of how and when funds are being distributed” to K-12 schools.

ASBSD Executive Director Wayne Lueders says the state school board association supports NSBA’s efforts to clarify the issue.

“There’s a wide gap between the perceived intent of the Education Jobs Fund and how the program has been implemented in South Dakota,” Lueders said. “We need firm guidance from the U.S. Education Department and close scrutiny as states prepare to certify that they’ve met the necessary financial commitments.”

NSBA’s letter points out that efforts to supplant state dollars with federal education aid appears to conflict with provisions in the law that prohibit states from using the money “directly or indirectly to establish, restore, or supplement a rainy day fund, or to supplant state funds in a manner that has this effect.” The law contains similar language preventing states from using the money to reduce or retire debt.

To ensure swift delivery of the emergency aid to schools, the federal government created an application process that allows states to receive the money quickly and later certify that they met the law’s requirements. The education department issued initial guidance to states, but federal education officials have yet to directly answer questions about using federal money to supplant state dollars.

Even though South Dakota’s application has already been approved, Lueders believes direct answers from the federal agency would be helpful for next legislative session.

“Ultimately, the legislature has the power of appropriations,” Lueders said. “Our goal is to ensure that lawmakers have clear information to make informed decisions.”

-Brian Aust, ASBSD Director of Communications

The letter, below, was sent by NSBA Associate Executive Director Michael A. Resnick on Oct. 7, 2010:

Dear Secretary Duncan:

On behalf of the 95,000 school board members, state school boards associations and the millions of students they represent, the National School Boards Association greatly appreciates your work to help ensure the passage of and swift application process for the Education Jobs Fund. This funding is vital to continuing the progress in student achievement, and will help districts retain teachers and staff whose work is central to classroom instruction and student services.

Currently, 47 states and the District of Columbia have received their respective Education Jobs Fund allocations and are scheduled to submit Maintenance-of-Effort (MOE) certifications over the months of October and November. However, concerns about how the funding allocations are being distributed by a number of state governments are raising questions about how, and if, statutory maintenance-of-effort and distribution guidelines to LEAs are being adhered to, according to the intent of the law.

Specifically, reports have surfaced about Education Jobs Funding being used to supplant state education aid, rather than supplement funding that was already budgeted and approved for education in some states. In order to ensure that the funding is being used for its intended purpose of saving education jobs, NSBA is writing to request expanded guidance regarding the law’s prohibition of the use of funds for debt reduction, to address reports about supplanting issues that are displacing the Jobs Funding. Since states must provide certification of MOE within 60 days of receiving funds, is there a possibility of conducting interim reviews of how and when funds are being distributed to LEAs? In South Dakota, for example, the state government announced its receipt of Education Jobs Funding and proceeded to allocate the funds to LEAs. However, the state forwarded regular state aid payments to LEAs, indicating that a specific amount of the regular payment was received from the Education Jobs Fund; but, the checks were the same amount as previously calculated (no increase in funding).

The only difference was the state funds were replaced with federal dollars; and, that portion of state funds (approximately $26.3 million) will be held over to fund next year?s education budget. At the same time, all state agencies are being directed to prepare budgets based on a 10 percent reduction in funds for the next fiscal year.

In Montana, efforts to supplant $30.7 million in Education Jobs Funding are the subject of several news reports; and, have raised concerns from the education community and taxpayers alike. Although federal statutes would normally take precedence, state officials have cited a state law regarding these efforts to supplant previously approved state education funds for Education Jobs Funding.

According to an article titled, “Jobs bill won?t help local schools,” published by The Daily Inter Lake in Montana, school districts that hoped they might be able to use Education Jobs Funding next year to retain teachers and staff, when budget predictions are significantly grim, may not get to do so.

“But the governor?s office doesn’t have a choice,” said Dan Villa, Gov. Brian Schweitzer’s education adviser. “We have to follow state statute,” he said, citing Montana Code Annotated 17-2-108, which says the state must use nongeneral fund money, whenever possible before using general fund appropriations.? Money from the jobs bill will be distributed via the state’s school funding formula, Villa said. That formula is paid out of the state?s general fund. “They [the governor’s office] decided that they will appropriate the federal money and reduce the general fund by a like amount,” state Superintendent of Public Instruction Denise Juneau said in a statement. Her office will be responsible for distributing the funds, probably in December. The general fund dollars that would have supported education this year will be reappropriated for schools next year, Villa said. “No one is losing anything here.”
–“Jobs bill won?t help local schools”
The Daily Inter Lake

The two scenarios described above are indicative of other efforts to supplant state education aid funding that has already been budgeted and approved. There are concerns that if state tax revenues fall short later this year, even more state governments are likely slash state education aid, figuring schools have the federal funds as a cushion. If so, how can state governments assuredly certify their compliance with the federal Maintenance-of-Effort guidelines?

In addition to MOE guidelines, the law states that program funds may not be used, “directly or indirectly to establish, restore, or supplement a rainy day fund, or to supplant State funds in a manner that has this effect. Furthermore, a State may not use program funds, directly or indirectly, to reduce or retire debt obligations incurred by the State or to supplant State funds in a manner that has this effect.”

In effect, state efforts to supplant funding may produce a direct or indirect result in reducing the amount of a state budget shortfall. Would such efforts to supplant not fall under Section C (C-11) in the Department’s “Initial Guidance for States on the Education Jobs Fund Program?”

And, according to C-2 of the Department?s Initial Guidance for States, “a Governor must make awards to LEAs on a timely basis so that funds are available for use during the 2010-2011 school year. An LEA must be able to use all of its allocation, if it so chooses, during the 2010-2011 school year.” If the Education Jobs Funding is not distributed to LEAs because of supplanting efforts or intentions of withholding funding until the next school year, what alternative exists for LEAs?

These questions are among several concerns we are fielding from school boards regarding implementation efforts for the Education Jobs Fund. School board members and their state associations throughout the nation rallied in support of Congress? passage of the Education Jobs Fund this year because of the urgent need to ensure that the progress made in academic improvement, innovative education, and efficient school services would not be hindered because of impending budget cuts to teachers and staff. However, many school board members and education advocates feel that their efforts were futile when faced with reports of funds being supplanted, which may result in the very budget cuts that districts were trying to avoid.

Another concern is that future audit findings and/or inspector general reports about implementation efforts may not be able to correct any supplanting or MOE issues until after the fact, when the program has expired and funding is unavailable.

As a practical matter, the efforts to supplant funding could prove counterproductive to overall education funding in future years by lowering the funding base in some states. Coupled with supplanting efforts, the across-the-board budget cuts affecting state education aid could likely inhibit student achievement and school performance, especially measures targeted toward school improvement and equity. It is because of these unintended consequences that many are wondering if the Education Jobs Fund is beneficial to their school districts and states for the long-term.

NSBA appreciates your leadership to help champion the Education Jobs Fund, and looks forward to working with you and your staff to ensure that the Jobs Fund helps supplement, rather than supplant, state education aid in order to retain the teachers and staff needed for the continued success of our students.


Michael A. Resnick Associate Executive Director

Erin Walsh|October 13th, 2010|Categories: Educational Legislation, Educational Finance, School Board News|

Rhee to step down but questions still abound about her, D.C. schools future

Michelle_RheeIt’s a wrap. Michelle Rhee is leaving her post as D.C. schools chancellor. Though it dispelled weeks of speculation, her announcment is hardly a surprise.

After all, she made it very clear—from her active campaigning for Mayor Adrian Fenty to her public lamenting after his defeat— that her tenure was dependent, motivated, shaped by the absolute control she enjoyed under Fenty- — and likely wouldn’t under political victor Vincent Gray.

No, her ouster is not news to me— though I find her departure timeline a bit surprising. But what really intrigues me about Rhee is how she became news in the first place.

How and why did she garner so much attention? She’s not the first mayor-appointed schools chief, a phenomenon that began two decades ago with Boston Mayor Thomas Menino who scored big when he nabbed  former U.S. Secretary of Education Tom Payzant as city superintendent.

Though Rhee and Fenty’s no-holds barred approach has ruffled many feathers, they were hardly the most controversial duo. As a former Chicago reporter, I can assure you Mayor Richard M. Daley and city budget director-turned schools chief Paul Vallas are hardly the warm and fuzzy type … then again, that is Chicago.

Naomi Dillon|October 13th, 2010|Categories: Governance, Urban Schools, American School Board Journal|Tags: , |

Technology is helping rural schools says Duncan

Yesterday, U.S. Education Secretary Arne Duncan said during a visit to a rural high school in North Dakota, “I think technology can be a huge vehicle, a huge strategy to leveling the playing field and giving children access to higher level classes and college level classes that I think are so important.”

BoardBuzz agrees and issues concerning how technology is advancing rural education will be discussed at this year’s T+L Conference that will be held in Phoenix from October 19-22.

Alexis Rice|October 13th, 2010|Categories: Conferences and Events, Rural Schools, Educational Technology, NSBA Opinions and Analysis|

The benefits of outdoor classrooms

Students are happier and learn better when they spend time outdoors, research shows. A webinar sponsored by NSBA’s National Affiliate programs on Oct. 12 gave examples of how schools, even in the most urban settings, can use outdoor areas as hands-on laboratories.

Laurie Harmon, an assistant professor in the department of parks, recreation, and leisure studies at George Mason University, showed data that says children’s and teens’ lives are too structured, and getting outdoors helps them unwind, de-stress, and regain focus. One study showed that students ages 6 to 12 cited “too much schoolwork” and “not enough time” as main factors for not going outside.

Already, technology is taking up a larger amount of young people’s time — one study showed that teenagers spend 7.5 hours using some sort of media and one-third of that time multitasking, double the time just five years ago, Harmon said. It’s important, she added, that schools find ways to engage students through outdoor learning activities.

“While parents are the number one influencer, school programs also have an influence, and schools have room to be more influential,” she said.

Barnard Elementary School in Washington, D.C., is an example of school that has successfully integrated outdoor activities into its curriculum. Principal Grace Reid said that she applied for grants to help teachers make outdoor education a part of their lesson plans.

When she realized that students lacked knowledge about where their food came from, she helped build an herb and vegetable garden.

“Many children have never seen vegetables or fruit grow, and they have no idea where they come from,” Reid said. “The gardens have provided experiences for authentic learning.”

Students are now much more willing to try new foods and choose healthy options in the school cafeteria, which uses vegetables harvested from the garden.

Another panelist, Michael Rizo, a program specialist with the U.S. Forest Service, gave tips for school officials looking for ways to use outdoor spaces to enhance students’ learning and overall educational experiences.

“You definitely have to plan a location,” taking into account sunlight, proximity to a source of water, and safety, he said.

“And when focusing on schools, first and foremost, you need a dedicated teacher, ideally a team of teachers,” he added. Support from the school principal and parents is also critical.

He recommended placing signs to explain the workings of the garden or outdoor area for the community, particularly if it is off-season or a habitat is designed to look “weedy.”

What doesn’t work, Rizo said, are after-school programs and those not clearly tied to the school’s day-to-day activities or supported by school leaders and teachers.

National Affiliates who would like to listen to a replay of the webinar can go to

Joetta Sack-Min|October 12th, 2010|Categories: Curriculum, Urban Schools, Student Achievement, School Board News|

Fragile familes, fragile lives

Library of Congress photo

Library of Congress photo

Maybe you’ve never heard the term “fragile families” — I hadn’t — but you no doubt have many children from these families in your schools. If your district is relatively affluent, you probably have less of them; but if your district is poor, these children could easily represent 70 percent or more of your students.

Fragile Families are defined as couples that are unmarried when their children are born, according to a new report from The Future of Children, a collaboration between Princeton University and the Brookings Institution. According to the report, children from these families are more likely to live in poverty, have serious behavioral issues, and (it will probably come as no surprise) do poorly in school.

Lawrence Hardy|October 12th, 2010|Categories: Governance, Diversity, Wellness, Educational Research, Student Achievement, Dropout Prevention, Policy Formation, Homeless People, American School Board Journal|

Education headlines: “Manifesto” calls for teacher-quality measures, school choice

Sixteen superintendents of large districts wrote a “manifesto” of how to transform public education for the Washington Post Opinion page this weekend. Most of the piece centers on ways to ensure teacher quality, but the school chiefs also say that families need more school choice… Students across the country are going on notice that drinking, smoking, using drugs or posting risqué photos on the Web on weekends and during the summer can get them sidelined from school activities during the school year, USA Today reports… And a new study shows states and the federal government spend billions to educate college freshmen who drop out after their first year, which also leaves many of them in debt and facing uncertain futures, the Associated Press reports. California, which has severely cut its higher education budget, ranked first–over a five-year period spent nearly half a billion dollars to educate first-year college students who dropped out before their sophomore year, according to the Los Angeles Times.

Joetta Sack-Min|October 12th, 2010|Categories: Announcements, School Board News|
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